EPPO Alert List – Pochazia shantungensis (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae)




Pochazia shantungensis is damaging fruit tree pest. It is native in China and invasive in the Republic of Korea, and it was recently reported for the first time in the EPPO region, both in Türkiye and in France (EPPO RS 2021/129).



P. shantungensis was first described in China in 1977. It was introduced in the Republic of Korea in 2010 and rapidly spread, as well as in Japan in 2015. It was collected for the first time in 2018 in the European part of Türkiye (it was subsequently also found on the Asian side of the Istanbul area) and in Southern France. In 2021, it was detected in a private garden in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, but subsequently eradicated. In 2022, its presence was reported in Toscana, Italy, as well as in Sochi (Krasnodar) in Russia. In 2023, P. shantungensis was found in a private garden in the Netherlands.

EPPO region: France, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Türkiye.

Asia: China (Shandong, Zhejiang), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Republic of Korea.


On which plants

P. shantungensis is a very polyphagous pest, with records on more than 200 plant species in 81 families. Economically important hosts include fruit species (e.g. apple, blueberry, chestnut, peach, persimmon) as well as forest and ornamental trees.

 Pochazia shantungensis (male)
Courtesy T. Bourgoin (MNHM, FR) - more pictures



This pest directly causes damage by sucking plant sap as well as by damaging young branches when females insert their eggs. It also indirectly induces the development of sooty mold on leaves as a result of honeydew secretion. One generation per year is observed in the Republic of Korea but two generations occur per year in China. In Türkiye, two generations per year have also been observed. The pest overwinters as eggs on trees only. Eggs are covered with white wax filaments. Overwintered eggs start to hatch from May in the Republic of Korea. Nymphs seem to prefer herbaceous plants rather than trees. Adults can be observed from July, and the new generation of overwintering eggs are generally found until late August in the Republic of Korea. Adults are about 15 mm long.

In the Republic of Korea, control of the pest in orchard requires insecticide application targeting the egg stages. Overall, the population of P. shantungensis in agricultural areas has increased by over 100% each year from 2015 to 2017, causing serious economic damage. In China, damage is reported only from Zhejiang.



Data is missing on its natural spread, but adults can fly and have the highest mobility among all developmental stages. Nymphal stages are also mobile. Over long distances, the movement of host plants can transport the pest as eggs.



Plants for planting of host plant species from countries where P. shantungensis occurs. As eggs are mostly laid on young branches, wood is unlikely to be a pathway.


Possible risks

P. shantungensis has a wide host range which includes economically important fruit crops for the EPPO region. It has already been introduced into two EPPO countries where it seems to be locally established. It is an important pest in the Republic of Korea and parts of China, and could also become an important pest in the EPPO region.



Arrêté du 11 mars 2022 portant établissement des listes d'organismes nuisibles au titre du 5° de l'article L. 251-3 du code rural et de la pêche maritime. JORF n°0063 du 16 mars 2022. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/arrete/2022/3/11/AGRG2135065A/jo/texte

Baek S, Kim M-J, Lee JH (2019) Current and future distribution of Ricania shantungensis (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae) in Korea: application of spatial analysis to select relevant environmental variables for MaxEnt and CLIMEX Modeling. Forests 10, 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10060490

Bourgoin T (2021) FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. Version 8, updated [2021-05-27]. https://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/

Bourgoin T, Gros P, Stroinski A (2020) Pochazia shantungensis (Chou & Lu, 1977), an important Asiatic invasive pest on fruit trees, first time reported from France (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Ricaniidae). Bulletin de la Sociétée Entomologique de France 125, 271–272.

Chou I, Lu C (1977) On the Chinese Ricaniidae with descriptions of eight new species. Acta Entomologica Sinica 20(3), 314-322 (English summary)

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2021) Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Robinia pseudoacacia plants from Turkey. EFSA Journal 19(5),6568, 54 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6568

Hizal E, Oztemiz S, Gjonov I (2019) Ricania shantungensis Chou & Lu 1977 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) a new invasive insect species in European Turkey. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 28 (12A), 9816-9820.

Hızal E, Öztemiz S, Gjonov I (2023) Phenology and host preferences of the invasive Pochazia shantungensis (Chou & Lu, 1977) (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae), a risk for agriculture and forest areas in the West-Palaearctic Region. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 75(2), 251-258. https://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/2023/002673

JKI (2021) PRA for Pochazia shantungensis. 8 pp. Available at https://pflanzengesundheit.julius-kuehn.de/en/pest-risk-analyses.html

Kim DE, Lee H, Kim MJ, Lee DH (2015) Predicting the potential habitat, host plants, and geographical distribution of Pochazia shantungensis (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 54, 179–189.

Kwon DH, Kim S-J, Kang T-J, Lee JH, Kim DH (2017) Analysis of the molecular phylogenetics and genetic structure of an invasive alien species, Ricania shantungensis, in Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 20, 901–906.

NPPO of France (2022-12).

NPPO of Germany (2022-01, 2023-08).

NPPO of the Netherlands (2023-07).

Rahman MA, Kwon Y-J, Suh S-J, Youn Y-N, Jo S-H (2012) The genus Pochazia Amyot and Serville (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae) from Korea, with a newly recorded species. Journal of Entomology 9(5), 239-247. https://doi.org/10.3923/je.2012.239.247

Stroiński A, Balderi M, Marraccini D, Mazza G (2022) First records of Pochazia shantungensis (Chou & Lu, 1977) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) in Italy. Zootaxa 5188(3), 275–282, https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5188.3.4

Zhuravleva EN, Gnezdilov VM, Tishechkin DY, Mikhailenko AP, Shoshina EI, Karpun NN, Musolin DL (2023) First records of Graphocephala fennahi Young, 1977 and Pochazia shantungensis (Chou & Lu, 1977) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Ricaniidae) in Russia. EPPO Bulletin 53(1), 139-144. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12910


EPPO RS 2021/130, 2022/011, 2022/190, 2023/011, 2023/059, 2023/179, 2023/180, 2023/181

Entry date 2021-06