EPPO Lists of Invasive Alien Plants

 

EPPO, in the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), has developed a programme to protect the EPPO region against invasive alien plants. In 2002 the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants was created and was given the task to identify invasive alien plant species which may present a risk to the EPPO region, and to provide information and where appropriate to propose management options.

 

The number of plants that can be considered as potential pest species is very large and the Panel has elaborated a process for all known, or potential invasive alien plants in the EPPO region to assess the risk and prioritise candidates for PRA. During this process, the Panel is documenting invasive alien plant species on data sheets and when necessary, conducting Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) following the EPPO Decision-support scheme, 'Pest Risk Analysis for quarantine pests'. As a result of these studies, the following lists of invasive alien plants have been established.

 

Read a detailed evaluation on the EPPO Prioritization Process and how species are added or removed from the lists.

 

 

 

 

 

EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests 

One of EPPO’s main missions is to help its member countries in preventing the introduction of pests from other parts of the world, and to limit their spread within the region should they be introduced. It is therefore necessary to develop at a regional level, common strategies to identify, evaluate and mitigate these risks by proposing phytosanitary measures whenever appropriate. These EPPO recommendations can then serve as a basis for NPPOs when establishing their phytosanitary regulations.

 

Invasive alien plants which have been added to the EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests are listed in the table below. The purpose of the EPPO A1/A2 Lists is to recommend that organisms of serious phytosanitary concern should be regulated as quarantine pests by EPPO member countries (A1 pests are absent from the EPPO region and A2 pests are locally present in the EPPO region). Plant species, before being submitted to a PRA, have been identified through the EPPO Prioritization Process as presenting a high risk, have been identified on international pathways of introduction and have a significant suitable area for further spread in the EPPO region. The listing of pests is based on technical justifications (i.e. PRAs) and follows a meticulous approval procedure in several steps reviewed by the Panel and the member countries, and approved by the Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations and finally adopted by the EPPO Council.

 

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database to retrieve PRA documents and datasheets)
EPPO A1/A2 Lists
Ageratina adenophora A2 in 2023
Alternanthera philoxeroides
A2 in 2015
Amaranthus palmeri A2 in 2020
Amaranthus tuberculatus A2 in 2020
Ambrosia confertiflora [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Ambrosia trifida A2 in 2019
Andropogon virginicus [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Baccharis halimifolia
A2 in 2013
Cardiospermum grandiflorum [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Celastrus orbiculatus A2 in 2021
Cortaderia jubata [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018
Crassula helmsii
A2 in 2006
Ehrharta calycina [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Eichhornia crassipes
A2 in 2008
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides  [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Hakea sericea [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Heracleum persicum
A2 in 2009
Heracleum sosnowskyi
A2 in 2009
Humulus scandens  [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
A2 in 2005
Lespedeza cuneata [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018
Ludwigia grandiflora
A2 in 2011
A2 in 2011
Lygodium japonicum [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018
Microstegium vimineum
A2 in 2015
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
A2 in 2015
Neltuma juliflora (=Prosopis juliflora) [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Parthenium hysterophorus
A2 in 2014
Pistia stratiotes [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Polygonum perfoliatum
A2 in 2008
Pueraria montana var. lobata
A2 in 2006
Salvinia molesta [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Solanum carolinense A2 in 2022
Solanum elaeagnifolium
A2 in 2006
Triadica sebifera [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018

 

EPPO List of invasive alien plants

The plants listed below have been identified by the Panel as being absent or present in the EPPO region; as having a high potential for spread; as posing an important threat to plant health and/or the environment and biodiversity; and eventually as having other detrimental social impacts on health, agriculture, horticulture and forestry, infrastructure, on recreational activities, or other trade related impacts such as market losses etc., in the EPPO region. Species in this list may be absent or present in the EPPO region. Because a large number of invasive alien plants are already present in the EPPO region, priorities were set in order to select those species considered to pose the greatest threat to species and ecosystems in the EPPO region. EPPO therefore recommends countries endangered by these species to consider taking measures to prevent their introduction and spread, or to manage unwanted populations (for example with awareness raising, restrictions on sale and planting, and control measures). This List is constantly being reviewed by the Panel (new species can be added and others removed). The List is not meant to be exhaustive but to focus on the main risks. All species of the A1/A2 List fulfil the criteria to be listed on the List of invasive alien plant but are of special concern to EPPO because of their limited distribution within the EPPO region and international pathways of introduction.

 

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database to retrieve PRA documents and datasheets, if available)
Added in
Acacia dealbata
2006
Acacia saligna 2021
Acer rufinerve 2019
Acroptilon repens
2005
Ailanthus altissima
2004
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
2004
Amelanchier x spicata
2004
Amorpha fruticosa
2006
Araujia sericifera 2024
Arctotheca calendula
2014
Asclepias syriaca 2021
Bidens subalternans 2020
Buddleja davidii
2006
Cabomba caroliniana
2006
Carpobrotus acinaciformis
2006
Carpobrotus edulis
2006
Cenchrus setaceus (Pennisetum setaceum) 2012
Cornus sericea
2012
Cortaderia selloana
2006
Cyperus esculentus
2004
Delairea odorata
2012
Egeria densa
2005
Elodea nuttallii
2004
Erigeron sumatrensis 2023
Euphorbia davidii 2024
Euphorbia heterophylla 2024
Fallopia baldschuanica
2012
Fallopia japonica
2004
Fallopia sachalinensis
2004
Fallopia x bohemica
2004
Gunnera tinctoria
2014
Helianthus tuberosus
2004
Heracleum mantegazzianum
2004
Hydrilla verticillata
2012
Impatiens glandulifera
2004
Koenigia polystachya 2022
Lagarosiphon major
2004
Lupinus polyphyllus  [IAP List in 2004, moved to Observation List in 2012 and back to IAP List  in 2023] 2023
Lycium ferocissimum 2023
Lysichiton americanus  [A2 in 2005 but deleted in 2009 – then Observation List and IAP List  in 2022] 2022
Myriophyllum aquaticum
2004
Neltuma chilensis, N. glandulosa, N. velutina  [formerly in Prosopis] 2020
Paspalum distichum
2006
Oxalis pes-caprae
2006
Prunus serotina
2004
Senecio inaequidens
2004
Sicyos angulatus
2005
Solidago canadensis
2004
Solidago gigantea
2004
Trianthema portulacastrum 2023
Zizania latifolia 2023

 

 

EPPO Observation List of invasive alien plants

The EPPO Observation List contains plant species (absent or present in the EPPO region) which through the Prioritization Process are assessed as presenting a medium risk (which is defined as low to medium spread potential combined with high impact or medium to high spread potential combined with medium impact) and species for which not enough information is available to make an accurate assessment. The EPPO Observation List was created in 2012 and it is constantly being reviewed by the Panel on Invasive Alien Species (new species can be added and others removed). The list is not meant to be exhaustive but to focus on species that present a medium risk.

 

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database to retrieve PRA documents and datasheets, if available)
Added in
Akebia quinata
2012
Alternanthera sessilis 2020
Artemisia princeps 2024
Asparagus asparagoides
2013
Azolla filiculoides
2012
Baccharis spicata 2019
Bidens frondosa
2012
Broussonetia papyrifera 2019
Cenchrus spinifex
2012
Cenchrus longispinus 2018
Eragrostis curvula
2012
Eriochloa villosa
2012
Galenia pubescens 2018
Hygrophila polysperma [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
2017
Impatiens edgeworthii 2018
Limnophila sessiliflora
2013
Miscanthus sinensis 2018
Nassella trichotoma, N. neesiana and N. tenuissima
2012
Rhododendron ponticum
2012
Sarracenia purpurea 2024
Sesbania punicea
2012
Solanum sisymbriifolium 2023
Solanum viarum 2022
Solidago nemoralis
2012
Verbesina encelioides
2012

 

EPPO Alert List (extract)

The main purpose of the Alert List is to draw the attention of NPPOs to emerging pests, diseases and invasive alien plants possibly presenting a risk to the EPPO region and achieve early warning. It can also be used by EPPO to select candidates which may be submitted to a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA). Species included in the Alert List have been selected by the EPPO Secretariat or proposed by EPPO member countries, because they may present a risk to the EPPO region. A species is maintained on the EPPO Alert List for a period of time (up to three years). Most species are still of limited distribution, or absent from the EPPO region. Each addition to the EPPO Alert List is also marked by a short article in the EPPO Reporting Service. Following a period of time, invasive alien plants recorded in the Alert List are assessed through the EPPO Prioritization process to determine whether they should be included in the List of Invasive Alien Plants, the Observation List, the list of minor concern, or a PRA should be conducted for listing on A1/A2 lists.

 

Read a short introduction to the EPPO Alert List.

 

Invasive alien plants included in the EPPO Alert List – for pests other than invasive alien plants view the full Alert List  

 

Plant name
Added in Mini data sheets Link to EPPO Global Database
Ambrosia grayi 2024 Alert List Link

Houttuynia cordata

2022 Alert List Link
Lonicera acuminata 2019 Alert List Link
Myriophyllum rubricaule 2024 Alert List Link
Paulownia tomentosa 2021 Alert List Link
Pontederia cordata 2022 Alert List Link
Pseudosasa japonica 2020 Alert List Link
Saururus cernuus 2023 Alert List Link
Senecio brasiliensis 2023 Alert List Link
Sporobolus cryptandrus 2022 Alert List Link
Sporobolus neglectus 2022 Alert List  Link
Sporobolus vaginiflorus 2022 Alert List  Link
Vallisneria australis 2023 Alert List Link